Posts Tagged ‘watershed’

## Union-Find

Wednesday, March 21st, 2018

The Union-Find data structure is well known in the image processing community because of its use in efficient connected component labeling algorithms. It is also an important part of Kruskal’s algorithm for the minimum spanning tree. It is used to keep track of equivalences: are these two objects equivalent/connected/joined? You can think of it as a forest of trees. The nodes in the trees are the objects. If two nodes are in the same tree, they are equivalent. It is called Union-Find because it is optimized for those two operations, Union (joining two trees) and Find (determining if two objects are in the same tree). Both operations are performed in (essentially) constant time (actually it is O(α(n)), where α is the inverse Ackermann function, which grows extremely slowly and is always less than 5 for any number you can write down).

Here I’ll describe the data structure and show how its use can significantly speed up certain types of operations.

## Panoramic photograph stitching — again

Sunday, April 3rd, 2011

In an earlier post, I described and implemented a method, that was published recently, to stitch together photographs from a panoramic set. In a comment this morning, Panda asked about the parameters that direct the region merging in the watershed that I used. This set me to think about how much region merging the watershed should do. The only limitation that I can think of, is that we need two regions: one touching the left image and one toughing the right. We can easily do this with a seeded watershed: we create two seeds, one at each end of the region where the stitch should be, and run a seeded watershed. This watershed will not create new regions. You should see it as a region growing algorithm, more than a watershed. However, the regions are grown according to the watershed algorithm: low grey values first. That insures that, when the two regions meet, it happens at a line with high grey values (a “ridge” in the grey-value landscape). The graph cut algorithm can now be left out: the region growing algorithm does everything.

## Panoramic photograph stitching

Tuesday, July 14th, 2009

I found the article “Fast image blending using watersheds and graph cuts,” by N. Gracias, M. Mahoor, S. Negahdaripour and A. Gleason (Image and Vision Computing 27(5):597-607, 2009) quite clever, and decided to try it out myself. Here’s a little demo and the code I wrote.